If we do not stay hydrated, physical performance can suffer.
This is particularly important during intense exercise or high heat.
This can lead to altered body temperature control, reduced motivation, increased fatigue and make exercise feel much more difficult, both physically and mentally (3).
Optimal hydration has been shown to prevent this from happening, and may even reduce the oxidative stress that occurs during high intensity exercise. This is not surprising when you consider that muscle is about 80% water (4, 5).
So, if you exercise intensely and tend to sweat, then staying hydrated can help you perform at your absolute best.
BOTTOM LINE:Losing as little as 2% of your body’s water content can significantly impair physical performance.
Your brain is strongly influenced by hydration status.
Studies show that even mild dehydration (1-3% of body weight) can impair many aspects of brain function.
In a study of young women, fluid loss of 1.36% after exercise impaired both mood and concentration, and increased the frequency of headaches (6).
Another similar study, this time in young men, showed that fluid loss of 1.59% was detrimental to working memory and increased feelings of anxiety and fatigue (7).
A 1-3% fluid loss equals about 1.5-4.5 lbs (0.5-2 kg) of body weight loss for a 150 lbs (68 kg) person. This can easily occur through normal daily activities, let alone during exercise or high heat.
BOTTOM LINE:Mild dehydration (fluid loss of 1-3%) can impair energy levels and mood, and lead to major reductions in memory and brain performance.
Several studies have shown that water can relieve headaches in those who are dehydrated (16).
However, this appears to depend on the type of headache.
One study of 18 people found that water had no effect on the frequency of headaches, but did reduce the intensity and duration somewhat (17).
BOTTOM LINE:Drinking water can sometimes help relieve headache symptoms, especially in people who are dehydrated.
Constipation is a common problem, characterized by infrequent bowel movements and difficulty passing stool.
Increasing fluid intake is often recommended as a part of the treatment protocol, and there is some evidence to back this up.
BOTTOM LINE:Drinking plenty of water can help prevent and relieve constipation, especially in people who generally do not drink enough water.
Urinary stones are painful clumps of mineral crystal that form in the urinary system.
The most common form is kidney stones, which form in the kidneys.
Higher fluid intake increases the volume of urine passing through the kidneys, which dilutes the concentration of minerals, so they are less likely to crystallize and form clumps.
Water may also help prevent the initial formation of stones, but studies are required to confirm this.
BOTTOM LINE:Increased water intake appears to decrease the risk of kidney stone formation. More research is needed in this area.
A hangover refers to the unpleasant symptoms experienced after drinking alcohol.
Although dehydration is not the main cause of hangovers, it can cause symptoms like thirst, fatigue, headache and dry mouth.
A good way to reduce hangovers is to drink a glass of water between drinks, and to have at least one big glass of water before going to bed.
BOTTOM LINE:Hangovers are partly caused by dehydration, and drinking water can help reduce some of the main symptoms of hangovers.
Drinking plenty of water can help you lose weight.
This is due to the fact that water can increase satiety and boost your metabolic rate.
This means that drinking 2 liters of water every day can increase your total energy expenditure by up to 96 calories per day.
In one study, dieters who drank half a liter of water before meals lost 44% more weight, over a period of 12 weeks (30).
It is actually best to drink water cold, because then the body will use additional energy (calories) to heat the water to body temperature.